This Month in the History of Photography

This Month in the History of Photography

The following events occurred this month in the History of Photography:

Annie Leibovitz was born on October 2, 1949, in Waterbury, Connecticut. In 1968, she went to study painting at the San Francisco Art Institute. There she discovered photography and was seduced by the immediacy of the medium. In 1973, she became Rolling Stone’s chief photographer and it’s been said that her work helped to define the look and style of the magazine. In 1983, she joined Vanity Fair and created some of the most memorable covers for the magazine. In 1991, her work was exhibited at the International Center of Photography in New York and according to William Hartshorn, then Deputy Director of the ICP, this exhibition was designated as one of the most popular in the history of the venue. Many of her images have been called icons of our time, including the photograph she took of John Lennon and Yoko Ono for the cover of Rolling Stone and the controversial image of Demi Moore for the cover of Vanity Fair.

Stephen Shore was born on October 8, 1947. When he was six years old an uncle gave him a Kodak darkroom set and that initiated him into photography. At nine, he got his first 35mm camera and by the time he was 11 years old he was convinced that he would be a photographer. In the 1960s, he met Andy Warhol when Shore was only 17 years old. Shore has said that meeting Andy Warhol was a turning point in his life and surely marked some of the photographer’s aesthetic interests. By 1971, he had exhibited his work at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York becoming the youngest living photographer to have a solo exhibition at the MET.


Dorothea Lange, Resettlement Administration photographer, in California. 1936.
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, DC 20540

Dorothea Lange died on October 11, 1965, in San Francisco, California, at age 70. When Lange’s doctors told her she only had months to live, the photographer was still thinking about photographing her family to make a documentary about the Farm Security Administration photographs and to document the unionization of migrants workers in California. None of those projects would be completed. The last project she was involved with was a retrospective of her work at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Lange and John Szarkowsi, head of the Museum’s Department of Photography, collaborated closely on the decisions of content and the organization of the photographs. The exhibition opened in January 15, 1966, after the death of the photographer.

On October 27, 1972, LIFE magazine published a photograph of Edwin Land where he demonstrates his new invention, the SX-70. A camera that could be folded down to the size if a cigar case and could fit in a coat pocket. The magazine titled the piece, “A Genius and his Magic Camera” and it shows Land surrounded by children holding the SX-70 model. This camera was the first automated, motorized, folding, single lens reflex camera to produce self-developing instant color prints. By 1973, the SX-70 model was sold at the rate of five thousand a day.


Five Masters of Photography that You Should Follow on Instagram

Five Masters of Photography that You Should Follow on Instagram

Instagram has quickly grown into a massive social network. With about 500 million active users taking photographs everyday and sharing them with so many different purposes, it is hard not to feel lost while looking for something interesting to see and think about.

I personally have two different accounts, one for my family and friends and the other one to follow and share with people interested in photography and visual culture. So when it comes to my @INSTRUMENTSOFMEMORY account, I am looking for a more selective version of my interests. That is why I was pleasantly surprised when I found out that some of my favorite photographers in the world are using Instagram as well. Here are five masters of photography that you can find on Instagram and some of the many reasons why you should definitely follow them.


Indian artist Dayanita Singh has described herself as a bookmaker that uses photography “to reflect and expand on the ways on which we relate to photographic images.”[1] She graduated in photojournalism from New York’s International Center of Photography. She shoots on traditional film, usually in black and white, but color has become part of her photographic language as well. Dayanita’s mother was an amateur photographer and has said that family albums were her first introduction to photography. When asked about Instagram, she responded, “What I love the most about photography is its dissemination.”[2] Her images on Instagram –a mix of building structures, flowers, quotes, ordinary objects, portraits, self-portraits, and even a video of a little girl criticizing how slowly Singh photographs—have garnered her 11.8k followers so far.


 Stephen Shore is a celebrated American photographer. Alongside William Eggleston, he is one of the central figures of 1970s color photography. His images have captured the quotidian as a form or visual diary and have been widely exhibited and published in the United States and abroad. Shore joined Instagram in 2014 and loves it! He even lectured about the use of this app at the Photo London Festival in 2015. Shore has said that he is always open to technological development because it represents a new challenge.[3] In his case, before he learned that there was a way to post a rectangular image on Instagram, he was “challenged” to make square images, something that he had not done in fifty years. The immediacy of Instagram is something that Shore enjoys as much as his 7.5k followers who can see on his daily posts how he perceives the world. As you can imagine, his world is full of color with that particular style that shaped what has been defined as the snapshot aesthetic.


Britain’s best-known photographer, Martin Parr claims to enjoy the banal. His iconic work has gained international recognition for his motifs and his very particular aesthetic, sometimes considered grotesque. Parr has published more than 90 books, and leisure and consumption are two of the main photographer’s interests. He shoots most of his photographs in color and his use of flash adds a hyper real quality to his images. Unlike Singh and Shore, Parr’s Studio uses Instagram as a platform to showcase past and new work and representative images of his work that have been taken with a camera and not with a mobile device. About Instagram and Flickr the photographer has said, “I welcome all of the different platforms for photography and their proliferation.” Martin Parr Studio joined Instagram in 2015 and now has 89k followers.


Zoe Strauss is a self-taught American photographer. She acquired her first camera at the age of thirty and started taking photographs of Philadelphia’s residents and neighborhoods where she lives and works. Her first photographic project, “I-95”, consisted of hanging photographs under the I-95 freeway for an exhibition free and open to the public. Since then, different institutions in the United States have recognized her work and her photographs have been included in the Whitney Biennial in 2006 and exhibited at the Philadelphia Art Museum and the International Center of Photography in New York. Strauss claims that she has no idea how to use Instagram. However, the diaristic images that she shares with more than 3000 followers focus on the distinctive features that the photographer has captured in her professional work: the struggles and beauty of everyday life.


German photographer, Wolfgang Tillmans is an expert in using saturated snapshots with a lo-fi aesthetic in his photographs. In the 1990s, the now London based photographer started documenting youth clubs and the LBGTQ scene in Germany. Self- documentation is the core of his work. Considered one of the most influential contemporary photographers, his ouvre has been awarded the Turner Prize in 2000 and the Hasselblad Award in 2015. About Instagram and selfies, Tillmans has said, “Pictures are replacing words as messages.”[4] As you can see, the photographer uses this platform to raise his voice in visual statements about political and social issues. Before the EU referendum, Tillmans publicly endorsed the “stay in” campaign and created a series of posters for this cause that he shared with his 2.2k followers on Instagram.





Celebrating 177 Years of Photography

Do you know why is World Photo Day?

On August 19, 1839, the French government acquired the patent of the daguerreotype and announced that the new process would be donated as a gift to the world.

The daguerreotype was a revolutionary photographic process developed and named after its inventor Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre. It is a unique image on a silvered copper plate, sensitized with iodine vapors, exposed in a camera obscura, developed in mercury fumes and fixed with salt water or sodium thiosulphate. It has a mirror-like surface and it’s very fragile.

The invention of the daguerreotype was revealed in an announcement published in January, 1839, in the official bulletin of the French Academy of Sciences. Shortly after the public announcement, Daguerre published a manual on daguerreotyping and, despite the difficulty of transporting the equipment, the process immediately attracted devotees who rushed to purchase cameras, plates, and chemicals. The French press characterized the phenomenon as a craze or “dagueréotypomanie.”

The daguerreotype marked a breakthrough in photographic history and an opportunity for ordinary people to capture their own memories.

Celebrando el legado de George Eastman

Celebrando el legado de George Eastman

Este lunes el museo que lleva el nombre de George Eastman ubicado en Rochester, Nueva York, anunció el insólito hallazgo y adquisición (vía eBay) de los únicos ejemplos de rollos de película utilizados para las primeras cámaras Kodak. Una caja con un rollo idéntico al empleado en el aparato introducido al mercado fotográfico en 1888 y tres rollos de película transparente, la cual salió a la venta un año después. Este importante descubrimiento para historiadores, coleccionistas e interesados en la fotografía, resulta motivo doble de celebración si consideramos que un día como hoy se conmemora el nacimiento de Eastman, creador de la marca comercial Kodak. Así que para celebrar ambos eventos, qué mejor que reconocer la importancia de este nombre en la historia de la fotografía recordando tan sólo una pequeña parte de sus amplias contribuciones a la imagen moderna.

George Eastman (1854-1932) se interesó por la fotografía en 1878 después de adquirir un equipo fotográfico para un viaje que nunca realizó. Al darse cuenta de lo complicado, laborioso y tardado que significaba capturar imágenes en esa época, decidió buscar un procedimiento que facilitara la toma de fotografías. Obsesionado con esta nueva empresa, Eastman trabajó como empleado de un banco durante el día y después regresaba a casa a experimentar con una técnica que según sabía, ya se estaba desarrollando en Inglaterra: la placa seca de gelatina bromuro (una placa de vidrio con una emulsión sensible que expuesta a la luz capturaba la imagen que aparecía después del revelado). Pronto y con la ayuda financiera de Henry Strong con quien formó la compañía Eastman Dry Plate, el joven empresario comercializó su propia versión de estas placas. Sin embargo, decidido a cambiar el curso de la fotografía, el primer intento de diversificación de su empresa se dio en 1884, al comercializar un rollo fotográfico que eventualmente sustituiría a la placa de vidrio, reemplazando el nombre de su empresa a Eastman Dry and Film.

Aunque es común referirse a la Kodak No. 1 como la primera cámara desarrollada por Eastman, en 1886 el empresario de Rochester, trató de sacar al mercado la cámara Eastman Detective. Sin embargo, problemas con el costo de producción impidieron que este aparato pudiera comercializarse como se tenía pensado. Fue gracias a la ayuda de Frank A. Brownell, un fabricante local de cámaras, que Eastman diseñó un nuevo y mejorado aparato fotográfico al cual registró en Estados Unidos con el número de patente 388,850. De esta manera, en septiembre de 1888 se dio a conocer públicamente la cámara Kodak (nombre fácil de recordar y pronunciar en cualquier idioma), cargada con un rollo fotográfico de 100 tomas en sucesión. Esta cámara salió a la venta a un precio de 25 dólares, alto costo para la época y el cual pocos podían pagar.

La innovación de este aparato, vino ligada a la capacidad de la empresa de ofrecer el servicio de revelado a sus clientes, quienes podían enviar la cámara a la compañía para obtener las impresiones de sus imágenes y un nuevo rollo cargado en la cámara por el costo de 10 dólares adicionales. Para aquellos que podían cubrir este servicio, la práctica fotográfica se convirtió en una nueva y divertida forma de registrar el acontecer del día a día y la publicidad fungió como una estrategia importante para la compañía de Eastman. Con un eslogan directo como You press the button we do the rest/ Usted aprieta el botón, nosotros hacemos el resto, la empresa de Rochester mercantilizó la vida cotidiana moderna y este momento histórico vio el inicio de una nueva concepción de la práctica: la fotografía simplificada, liberada y paulatinamente, al alcance de las masas.

Esta importante adquisición contribuye de manera histórica a la más representativa colección de aparatos y productos producidos por la compañía Kodak la cual se encuentra alojada en uno de los museos más importantes a nivel mundial dedicados a preservar la historia de la fotografía y el cine. “La pieza que faltaba” según señala Todd Gustavson—curador del Eastman Museum—en la exhibición cronológica de la historia tecnológica de la fotografía en esa institución y una merecida celebración al legado de George Eastman.